CAT Prep : Strategy for Verbal Section – Deciphering words in CAT using etymology

First of all, relax yourself if vocabulary is not your fortress. Most of the aspirants commit the mistake of mugging of word meanings from multiple word-lists and end up nowhere. One should realize that CAT doesn’t check your knowledge based on vocabulary. It checks your skill of word-application in the form of multiple question formats of Verbal Section of CAT. Just like Numbers form the basis of Quantitative Section, words should be perceived as the building blocks of language and hence, the Verbal Section.

The way Quantitative questions involve application of basic concepts and not memorizing complex formulae, Verbal questions just involves basic knowledge of vocabulary. If you can catch the root hidden in the word, you can easily figure out the meaning based on the context. Sometimes it is even defined for you in the text.

Working on the same lines we bring to you a list of high-frequency roots of etymology and their related words with the corresponding meanings which will surely help you in upcoming CAT and related MBA examinations:

  1. Anthropos (mankind):
  • Anthropology = study of mankind
  • Philanthropy = love for mankind
  • Misanthrope = one who hates his fellow mortals

 

  1. Agogos (Leader):
  • Pedagogue = a narrow-minded, strait-laced, old-fashioned, dogmatic teacher
  • Demagogue = one who stirs up discontent among the masses so he can gain political power

 

  1. Alter (other):
  • Altruism = philosophy of putting another’s welfare above one’s own
  • Altercation = argument
  • To Alternate = to skip one
  • To Alter = to change
  • Alternative = a choice
  • Alter ego = A very close and trusted friend who seems almost a part of yourself
  • Alternate (adj.) = other
  • Alteration = a change

[off-topic: Adulation > flattery > Compliment]

 

  1. Astron (star):
  • Astronomy = study of celestial phenomena
  • Astrology = Pseudoscience which claims it can foretell the future by a study of the stars
  • Astronomical = tremendously big
  • Aster = a star-shaped flower
  • Asterisk = a star-shaped symbol
  • Disaster = calamity/ cataclysm/ catastrophe

 

  1. Ambi (both):
  • Ambidextrous = equally skillful with each hand; deceitful
  • Ambivert = one who turns his mind both inward and outward
  • Ambiguity = accidentally double-entendre
  • Ambivalent = Uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow
  • Ambit = An area in which something acts or operates or has power or control
  • Ambience = A particular environment or surrounding influence

 

  1. Ambul (to walk):
  • Ambulatory = Able to walk about (verb: Amble)
  • Ambulance = vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals
  • Perambulator = A small vehicle with four wheels in which a baby or child is pushed around

 

  1. Anima (Soul or Spirit or Mind):
  • Animal = A living organism
  • Animate = Give new life or energy to; vivify
  • Inanimate = Not endowed with life
  • Animated = Having life or vigor or spirit
  • Animation = Liveliness/ Life/ Vitality
  • Magnanimous = Noble and generous in spirit
  • Pusillanimous = Lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful [Pusilàvery small]
  • Unanimous = of one mind; in complete agreement
  • Equanimity = Steadiness of mind under stress
  • Animus = Hostility/ ill will/ malevolence/ Animosity

 

  1. Algia (pain):
  • Analgesic = Anodyne/ Pain-killer
  • Neuralgia = Acute spasmodic pain along nerves
  • Nostalgia = Longing for something past (“nostos” means “a return to home”)

 

  1. an/ ana (not/ no):
  • Anemia = Lack of important elements in blood
  • Anarchy = Lack of Law
  • Analgesia = Lack of Pain
  • Anomaly = Something not according to rule
  • Anathema = bête noire/ A detested person

 

  1. Arch (rule):
  • Monarchy = Gov. ruled by Single Ruler
  • Oligarchy = Gov. ruled by few privileged people
  • Anarchist = one opposed to government
  • Hierarchy = Higher echelons of Government, church, Business, etc.

 

  1. Ante (before):
  • Anterior = Forepart/ front/ stem
  • Antecedent = coming before
  • Antediluvian = Before the flood; ancient

 

  1. Anti (against):
  • Antiseptic = against contamination
  • Antipathy = a feeling against
  • Antonym = words of opposite meanings

 

  1. Bios (life):
  • Biology = study of all life
  • Biography = story of someone’s life
  • Autobiography = A biography of yourself
  • Biopsy = medical examination of living tissue

 

  1. Botane (plant):
  • Botany = The branch of biology that studies plants

 

  1. Bene (good):
  • Benign = benignant/ kind/ gracious
  • Benediction = a blessing/ Boon (good saying)
  • Beneficent = causing good (doing well)
  • Benevolent = well-disposed (wishing well)
  • Benefactor = helpful/ favorable (a good doer)
  • Benefit = Gain/ profit; welfare

 

  1. Badinage:
  • Badinage = a half-teasing, non-malicious, frivolous Banter, intended to amuse rather than wound [its closest synonym is “Persiflage”]

 

  1. Bibere (to drink):
  • Imbibe = (Liquor) Take in liquids/ soak up
  • Bibulous = boozy/ drunken/ sottish

 

  1. Bovis (ox or cow):
  • Bovine = Dull and slow-moving and stolid; like an ox

 

  1. Kardia (heart):
  • Cardiologist = heart specialist
  • Cardiac = of or relating to heart
  • Cardiogram = electrically produced record of the beats of the heart
  • Cardiograph = instrument which produces cardiogram

 

  1. Chiros (hand):
  • Chirography = Beautiful handwriting
  • Chiropractic = use of hands in the curing of ailments
  • Chiropody = treatment of the surface ailments of hand and foot

 

  1. Conscience (scruples/ moral sense):
  • Conscionable = Just
  • Unconscionable = Lacking a conscience
  • Conscientious = scrupulous; painstaking

 

  1. Corr (correction):
  • Corrigible = amendable/ redeemable/ reformable
  • Incorrigible = Impervious to correction by punishment
  • corrigendum = A printer’s error; to be corrected

 

  1. Chronos (Time):
  • Chronic = going on for a long time
  • Anachronism = something out of time
  • Chronological = Relating to or arranged according to temporal order
  • Chronometer = An accurate clock (especially used in navigation)
  • Chronicle = A record or narrative description of past events that happened at one time
  • Synchronize = Happen at the same time; contemporize
  • Synchronoscope = An instrument that indicates whether two periodic motions are synchronous

 

  1. Con (together):
  • Conformity = Correspondence in form or appearance
  • Congruity = The quality of agreeing
  • Consonance = The property of sounding harmonious
  • Concord = Go together; be in accord
  • Consensus = Agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole
  • Consign = Commit forever; commit irrevocably
  • Concert = A performance of music by players or singers not involving theatrical staging
  • Consolidate = Bring together into a single whole or system; Form into a solid mass or whole
  • Contiguous = conterminous; neighboring/ adjacent

 

  1. Cogere (to drive together/ compel/ force):
  • Cogent = Powerfully persuasive
  • Cogency = The quality of being valid and rigorous
  • Cogently = In a cogent manner; forcibly; convincingly; conclusively

 

  1. Chauvinist:
  • Chauvinist = an exaggerated & blatant patriot/ jingoist

[according to the name of a French soldier, Nicholas Chauvin, during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte]

 

  1. Caedo/ Cide (to cut down/ kill):
  • Suicide = killing oneself
  • Fratricide = killing of one’s brother
  • Sororicide = killing of one’s sister
  • Homicide = killing a human being (general term for slaying; if proves, it is called “murder”)
  • Regicide = killing of king, president, etc.
  • Uxoricide = killing of one’s wife
  • Infanticide = killing of a newborn child
  • Genocide = killing of a whole race or nation
  • Virucide = An agent (physical or chemical) that inactivates or destroys viruses

 

  1. Kratia (Rule):
  • Gerontocracy = Gov. ruled by old people
  • Plutocracy = Gov. ruled by wealthy people
  • Technocracy = Gov. ruled by Scientists & Engineers
  • Bureaucracy = Gov. ruled by Bureaus
  • Democracy = Gov. ruled by the People
  • Autocracy = Gov. ruled by an absolute Dictator/ Absolutism/ Totalitarianism

 

  1. Credo (believe):
  • Credo = Principles by which someone guides his action
  • Creed = a religious belief
  • Credence = mental attitude that something is believable
  • Credentials = bona fides/ attestation/ Certificate
  • Credulous = willing to believe
  • Credible = Capable of being believed
  • Credit = Have trust in; trust in the truth or veracity of
  • Cred = Credibility among young fashionable urban individuals
  • Credenza = A kind of sideboard or buffet
  1. Circum (around):
  • circumambient = Surrounding/ encompassing
  • circumambulate = Walk around something
  • circumcision = surgical removal of foreskin of males
  • circumduction = circular movement of a limb or eye
  • circumflex = diacritical mark
  • circumfuse = Spread something around something
  • circumfluous = Flowing round
  • circumstantial = Fully detailed and specific
  • circumvallation = act of surrounding with a wall
  • circumvent = Surround so as to force to give up
  • circumvolute = Wind or turn in volutions

 

  1. Cliché:
  • Cliché = it is a pattern of words which was once new & fresh, but which now is so old, worn & threadbare that only banal, unimaginative speakers & writers ever use it

[its closer synonyms are “Bromide” & “Platitude”]

 

  1. Clandestine:
  • Clandestine = secrecy or concealment in the working out of a plan which is evil or illegal

[Surreptitious = Stealthy, Sneaky, Furtive, generally because of fear of detection]

 

  1. Carnis (Flesh):
  • Carnelian = Color of red flesh
  • Carnival = festival of merrymaking and processions
  • Carnal = Marked by appetites and passions of body
  • Carnage = great destruction of Life
  • Reincarnation = Return to another body after death

 

  1. Castigare (to correct):
  • Castigate = Censure severely

 

  1. Caput (head):
  • Recapitulate = Summarize briefly
  • Capital = seat of the head of the government
  • Decapitate = behead
  • Captain = the head of a group

 

  1. Cheval (horse) or Caballus (an inferior horse):
  • Chivalrous = Being attentive to women like an ideal knight; Gallant
  • Cavalcade = A procession of people traveling on horseback
  • Cavalier = Given to haughty disregard of others
  • Cavalry = Troops trained to fight on horseback

 

  1. Cilium (eyelid):
  • Supercilious = Having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

 

  1. Cadere (to fall):
  • Cadaver = corpse
  • Cadaverous = Very thin from disease/ hunger/ cold
  • Decadent = Marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay; effete

 

  1. Dexter (right hand):
  • Dexterous = skillful/ adroit
  • Dextral = of or on the right; clockwise
  • Ambidextrous = equally skillful with each hand
  • Dextrorse = Spiraling upward from left to right
  • Dextrocardia = Abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest

[In Latin, Dexter = right hand and Sinister = Left hand. In English, Sinister = evil/ dangerous

In French, droit = right hand and Gauche = Left hand. In English, Gauche = clumsy/ tactless]

  1. Demos (people):
  • Democracy = the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
  • Demography = the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
  • Demagogy = Leading the hoi polloi

 

  1. Dict (to say):
  • Malediction = Curse/ Imprecation / Bane
  • Benediction = a blessing/ Boon
  • Dictaphone = tape recorder
  • Predict = anticipate/ forebode/ prognosticate
  • Dictation = An authoritative direction or instruction to do something

 

  1. Donare (to give):
  • Condone = Excuse, overlook, or make allowances for
  • Donation = gift [Donee & Donor]

 

 

 

  1. Dilettare (to delight):
  • Dilettante = Showing frivolous or superficial interest; amateurish (don’t confuse it with “tyro”)

 

  1. Dolere (to suffer):
  • Dolor = (poetry) painful grief
  • Dolorous = Showing sorrow/ lachrymose
  • Doleful = Mournful

 

  1. Derma (skin):
  • Dermatologist = skin specialist doctor
  • Hypodermic = penetrating under the skin
  • Epidermis = outer layer of skin
  • Taxidermist = one who prepares, stuffs, and mounts the skins of animals
  • Pachyderm = animal with unusually thick skin
  • Dermatitis = skin inflammation, irritation, infection

 

  1. Ego (I):
  • Ego = self-concept
  • Egoist = one who believes in self-advancement
  • Egotist = one who talks about his accomplishments
  • Egocentric = devotedly self-centered
  • Egomania = self-madness
  • Alter ego = A very close and trusted friend who seems almost a part of yourself

[In the rating of egoism: egomaniacal > egocentric > egotist > egoist]

  1. Equi (equal):
  • Equivocal = purposely vague, ambiguous, susceptible
  • Equality = par
  • Equidistant = The same distance apart at every point
  • Equinox = Either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth’s equator and day and night are of equal length
  • Equanimity = composure/ calmness
  • Equilibrium = A stable situation in which forces cancel one another

 

  1. Esce: (beginning to):
  • Adolescent = beginning to grow up
  • Evanescent = Ephemeral/ beginning to vanish
  • Convalescent = beginning to get well
  • Putrescent = becoming Putrid/ beginning to rot

 

  1. Eu (good):
  • Eugenics = methods of improving genetic qualities
  • Euphemism = Good or inoffensive saying
  • Euphony = pleasant Lilt or rhythm
  • Eulogy = formal speech of praise
  • Euphoria = sense of mental buoyancy
  • Euthanasia = mercy killing/ good death

 

  1. Enervis (weak):
  • Enervate = Weaken mentally or morally

 

  1. Equus (Horse):
  • Equestrienne = a horse-woman
  • Equine = Horse-like

 

  1. Esthet (feeling):
  • Esthetic = Appealing to the feelings
  • Anesthetic = no feeling
  • Anesthesia = insensibility to feeling

 

  1. Fac or fic (to do):
  • Maleficent = causing harm (doing badly)
  • Beneficent = causing good (doing well)
  • Factory = a place where things are done
  • Fact = something which was done/ something true
  • Malefactor = a criminal (a bad doer)

 

  1. Fer (to bear):
  • Somniferous = bearing sleep
  • Vociferous = bearing loud voice
  • Odoriferous = Emitting an odor

 

  1. Frater (brother):
  • Fraternize = Be on brotherly terms with someone
  • Fraternal = brotherly
  • Fraternity = Frat/ Sodality/ Brotherhood
  • Fratricide = killing of one’s brother

 

  1. Gyne (woman):
  • Misogynist = one who hates women
  • Gynecologist = doctor specializing in female disorders

 

  1. Gamos (marriage):
  • Monogamy = system of having one mate at a time
  • Polygamy = social custom of plurality of marriages
  • Bigamy = legal crime of having more than one spouse
  • Misogamy = hatred of marriage

 

  1. Graph (writing):
  • Graphology = study & analysis of handwriting
  • Chirography = Beautiful handwriting
  • Telegraph = writing from afar
  • Stenograph = writing in short form
  • Autograph = writing of one’s own name

 

  1. Geos (earth):
  • Geology = study of the composition of earth
  • Geometry = measurement of figures
  • Geography = Study of the earth’s surface; includes topography, climate, soil and vegetation
  • Apogee = Apoapsis in Earth orbit
  • Perigee = Periapsis in Earth orbit

 

  1. Gen (to give birth to/ to be born):
  • Genetics = The branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • Gene = segment of DNA considered as unit of heredity
  • Genealogy = The study of ancestry and family history
  • Eugene/ Eugenia = well-born
  • Eugenics = The study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding
  • Genital = venereal (relating to the external sex-organs)
  • Genesis = The beginning, birth or origin of anything
  • Psychogenic = born of the mind or emotions
  • Congenital = Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development (don’t confuse Congenital with Congenial, means friendly)
  • Genocide = killing of a whole race or nation

 

  1. Gnos (to know):
  • Agnostic = who doesn’t know about the God
  • Diagnosis = Identifying the cause of some phenomenon
  • Prognosis = A prediction about how something (the course of a disease) will develop

 

  1. Greg (Herd):
  • Congregation = a religious Herd
  • Segregation = separation from the Herd
  • Gregarious = who likes to be with the Herd
  • Egregious = so vicious that it actually stands out from the herd

 

  1. Garrulous (chattering):
  • Garrulity = constant talking, usually aimless and meaningless, about trifles

 

  1. Gratus (agreeable or pleasing):
  • Gratuitous = Costing nothing; without cause
  • Gratis = free; without payment
  • Gratuity = a tip
  • Gratitude = thankfulness
  • Ingrate = A person who shows no gratitude
  • Ingratiate = Gain favor with other by deliberate efforts
  • Congratulate = felicitate
  • Gratify = satisfy

 

  1. Homo (mankind):
  • Homo sapiens = The only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools

 

  1. Hypo (under/ Less):

 

  • Hypochondriac = A patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments [chondria à Cartilage of the Breastbone]
  • Hypothyroidism = An underactive thyroid gland
  • Hypothetic = Based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence
  • Hypoactive = Abnormally inactive
  • Hypocritical = Professing feelings one does not have
  • Hyponym = A word that is more specific than a given word

 

  1. Hyper (over/ above):
  • Hypercritical = Inclined to judge too severely
  • Hypertension = high blood pressure
  • Hypersensitive = allergic
  • Hypermedia = interactive multimedia system
  • Hypertext = machine-readable text
  • Hypertrophy = Abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; dysplasia [antonymà Atrophy; root word “trephein” means “to nourish”]

 

  1. Iatreia (healing):
  • Pediatrics = the healing of a child
  • Psychiatrist = a doctor who heals sick minds

 

  1. itis (inflammation):
  • Osteomyelitis = Inflammation of the bones

 

  1. Icon (a religious image):
  • Iconoclast = someone who sneers at convention & tradition (it does not of course have to be restricted to religion)

[root word “clast” means “to break”]

 

  1. Insect (cut):
  • Insects = forms of life that seem, in appearance, as if they are almost cut in two
  • Dissection = Cutting so as to separate into pieces
  • Sectile = Capable of being cut
  • Sector = A group that forms part of society or economy

 

  1. logy (the study of):
  • Phrenology = analysis of skull contours
  • Graphology = study & analysis of handwriting
  • Psychology = study of human mind
  • Ophthalmology = The branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases
  • Astrology = Pseudoscience which claims it can foretell the future by a study of the stars

 

  1. Laconia:
  • Laconic = Brief and to the point; effectively cut short (named after ancient Sparta, which was originally known as Laconia, its citizens were stoical)

 

  1. Loquor (to speak):
  • Loquacious = Full of trivial conversation
  • Eloquent = speaking expressively
  • Grandiloquent = Magniloquent = pompous
  • Soliloquy = speech made to oneself
  • Ventriloquist = A performer who projects the voice into a wooden dummy
  • Colloquial = Informal spoken language
  • Circumlocution = An indirect way of expressing

 

  1. Misein (to hate):
  • Misanthropy = hatred of mankind
  • Misogyny = hatred of women
  • Misogamy = hatred of marriage

 

  1. Mono (one):
  • Monk = A male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work
  • Monastery = cloister
  • Monotonous = humdrum
  • Monoplane = An airplane with a single wing
  • Monopoly = Exclusive control of something
  • Monarchy = autocracy
  • Monocarpic = Dying after bearing fruit only once
  • Monologue = A (usually long) dramatic speech by a single actor

 

  1. Martinet:
  • Martinet = Someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

[according to the name of the Inspector General of Infantry of France during the reign of King Louis 14, who was excessively disciplined]

 

  1. Malus (bad):
  • Malign = Evil; Harmful; Hateful
  • Malignant = cancerous
  • Malediction = Curse/ Imprecation / Bane (bad saying)
  • Maleficent = causing harm (doing badly)
  • Malevolent = ill-disposed (wishing badly)
  • Maladroit = awkward (having a bad right hand)
  • Malaise = illness (bad ease)

 

  1. Metron (measure):
  • Sphygmomanometer = blood pressure measuring device
  • Optometrist = one who measures the vision of the eye
  • Thermometer = measure of heat
  • Taximeter = measure of taxicab miles
  • Metric system = system of measurement
  • Barometer = measure of atmospheric pressure

 

  1. Militaris (pertaining to a fighting man):

 

  • Militate = Fight against; act upon
  • Militant = Belligerent/ disposed to Fight
  • Military = armed services

 

  1. Mater (mother):
  • Matriarch = The female head of family or tribe
  • Maternity = Motherhood
  • Maternal = Motherly
  • Matron = A married woman (middle-aged with children) who is staid and dignified; Nurse; wardress
  • Alma Mater = school you graduated from (one’s intellectual mother)
  • Matrimony = The ceremony or sacrament of marriage
  • Matronymic = a name formed on the mother’s name
  • Matrisib = enate/ matrikin/ matrilineal kin

 

  1. Mania (madness/ morbid attraction):

 

  • Monomania = A mania restricted to one thing or idea
  • Dipsomania = alcoholism/ potomania/ inebriation
  • Kleptomania = cacoethes to steal in the absence of any economic motive
  • Pyromania = morbid compulsion to set fire to things [Pyromaniac sets fire for the thrill, Incendiary for revenge & arsonist for money]
  • Megalomania = A psychological state characterized by delusions of grandeur
  • Nymphomania = Abnormally intense sexual desire in women; concupiscence/ Eros

 

  1. Moneta:
  • Money = medium of exchange (it comes from the name of the Roman Goddess, Juno Moneta, who guarded the temples of Finance)
  • Patrimony = an inheritance from one’s father
  • Monetary = Relating to or involving money; Pecuniary
  • Moneyer = A skilled worker who coins or stamps money

 

  1. Neuron (nerve):
  • Neurologist = doctor specializing in nerves
  • Neuralgia = acute pain along the nerves and their branches
  • Neuritis = inflammation of the nerves
  • Neurasthenia = depression and emotional exhaustion
  • Neurosis = emotional disturbance

 

  1. Notus (known):
  • Noted = Widely known and esteemed
  • Notorious = widely but unfavorably Known

[off-topic: Childlike = Exhibiting childlike simplicity and credulity; but, Childish = Indicating a lack of maturity ]

 

  1. Nomos (arrangement/ Law/ Order):
  • Astronomy = arrangement of stars & other celestial bodies
  • Autonomy = self-law, self-rule, self-government
  • Metronome = musical time measurer

 

  1. Nym (Name or meanings):
  • synonym = words of same meaning
  • antonym = words of opposite meaning
  • homonym = words of similar sounding
  • acronym = abbreviated form of several words
  • Pseudonym = nom de plume/ Penname [not “alias”]
  • Anonymous = having no name
  • Eponym = The person for whom something is named

 

  1. Osteon (bone):
  • Osteopathy = treatment based on skeleton and muscles
  • Osteomyelitis = Inflammation of the bones

 

  1. Odontos (tooth):
  • Orthodontist = Doctor specializing in straightening of teeth

 

  1. Opsis (sight or viewing):
  • Biopsy = medical examination of living tissue
  • Autopsy = medical examination of a corpse

 

  1. Optikos (eye):
  • Optic = Of or relating to or resembling the eye
  • Optician = one who grinds lenses
  • Optometrist = one who measures the vision of the eye

 

  1. Oculus (eye):
  • Oculist = eye specialist
  • monocle = one-lens eyeglass
  • binocular = field glasses which increase the range of our two eyes
  • inoculate = immunize/ vaccinate

 

  1. Obstetrix (to stand before):
  • Obstetrics = midwifery/ OB/ tocology
  • [Off-topic: as an old English root, Glib = slippery.
  • Literally, Glib = Artfully persuasive in speech.
  • Derogatorily, it means “Marked by lack of intellectual depth”]

 

  1. Ortho (change):
  • Orthopedist = the doctor who straightens bone deformities, in children primarily
  • Orthodontist = Doctor specializing in straightening of teeth
  • Orthography = A method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols

 

  1. Pod (foot):
  • Podium = speaker’s stand
  • Tripod = three legged stand
  • Podiatry = treatment of minor ailments of foot

 

  1. Phrenos (brain):
  • Phrenology = analysis of skull contours
  • Phrenic vein = Either of two veins that drain the diaphragm

 

  1. Phobia (morbid repulsion):
  • Claustrophobia = A morbid fear of being closed in a confined space
  • Agoraphobia = A morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • Acrophobia = A morbid fear of great heights
  • Pistanthrophobia = common fear of trusting people due to past experiences with relationships gone bad
  • Hydrophobia = A morbid fear of water
  • Xenophobia = A morbid fear of Foreigners
  • Photophobia = A morbid fear of Light

 

  1. Ped (foot):
  • Pedestal = A support or foundation
  • Pedal = A lever that is operated with the foot
  • Pedestrian = A person who travels by foot; prosaic/ commonplace/ hackneyed/ banal/ trite

 

  1. Philos (Love):
  • Philology = Love of words (study of Linguistics)
  • Philanthropist = altruist
  • Philanderer = one who makes Love triflingly
  • Philatelist = one who loves to collect stamps
  • Anglophile = An admirer of British customs
  • Bibliophile = Lover & collector of rare books
  • Philadelphia = City of Brotherly Love
  • Philosophy = Love of wisdom
  • Philharmonic = Love of harmonies or music
  • Philtre = love-potion

 

  1. Pater (father):
  • Patriot = One who loves and defends his or her country
  • Patrioteer = Chauvinist/ jingoist
  • Patrimony = an inheritance from one’s father
  • Patronymic = a name formed on the father’s name
  • Paternity = Fatherhood
  • Patriarch = The male head of family or tribe
  • Patricide = killing of one’s father
  • Patrician = Aristocrat/ Blue-blood/ of noble origin
  • Patron = Frequenter/ Sponsor/ Supporter
  • Padre = A chaplain in one of the military services

 

  1. Par (equal):

 

  • Par = (golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course; A state of being essentially equal or equivalent
  • Parity = Functional equality (used in Obstetrics, Mathematics, Physics & Computer Science with slight difference)
  • Disparity = Inequality or difference in some respect
  • Disparage = Express a negative opinion of someone’s achievements, accomplishments, attempts, etc.
  • Compare = Examine and note the similarities or differences of
  • Peer = A person who is of equal standing with another in a group

 

  1. Pathos (suffering/ disease/ feeling):

 

  • Psychopathic = mentally suffered
  • Osteopathy = treatment based on skeleton and muscles
  • Sympathetic = same feeling as someone else
  • Antipathy = Dislike/ Aversion/ Grudge
  • Apathy = Lack of feeling or interest
  • Pathology = Study of disease (Pathological = diseased)
  • Pathetic = Deserving or inciting pity
  • Pathos = A quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow); poignancy
  • Telepathy = Apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions
  • Homeopathy = A method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
  • Allopathy = The usual method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects differing from those produced by the disease itself

 

  1. Phanein (to show):
  • Sycophant = A person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage/ boot-licker/ stoolpigeon [root “sykon” means “fig”]
  • Diaphanous = So thin as to transmit light [root “dia” means “through”]

 

  1. Paidos (child):
  • Pediatrician = baby doctor
  • Pedagogy = the leading of a child
  • Orthopedist = the doctor who straightens bone deformities, in children primarily

 

  1. Psyche (mind):
  • Psychiatrist = a doctor who heals sick minds
  • Psychosis = personality disorder
  • Psychologist = one who studies the human mind
  • Psychotherapy = treatment of the mind
  • Psychoanalysis = one who delves into the unconscious mind of the patient
  • Psyche = mental, spiritual or nonphysical aspect of one’s existence
  • Psychic = Phenomena or qualities that cannot be explained in purely physical terms
  • Psychopathic = mentally suffered
  • Psychosomatic = pertaining to relationships between mind and body
  • Psychogenic = which originates emotionally

 

  1. Pan (all):
  • Pandemonium = A state of extreme disorder
  • Panorama = a view all around/ cyclorama/ diorama
  • Panacea = Hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases/ catholicon/ Elixir

 

  1. Poly (many):
  • Polygon = a geometric figure of many sides
  • Polyglot = speaking many Languages
  • Polyamory = having multiple sexual relationships
  • Polyclinic = clinic in which many diseases are treated
  • Polychromic = Having or exhibiting many colors
  • Polydipsia = Excessive thirst
  • Polysemy = lexical ambiguity
  • Polyptoton = Repetition of a word in a different case or inflection in the same sentence
  • Polysomy = Congenital defect of having one or more extra chromosomes in somatic cells
  • Polygraph = A medical instrument that records several physiological processes simultaneously (e.g., pulse rate and blood pressure and respiration and perspiration)

 

  1. Placidus (to please):
  • Placate = Lenify/ assuage/ conciliate/ mollify/ pacify
  • Placid = tranquil/ serene
  • Implacable = inexorable/ relentless/ grim/ stern
  • Complacent = self-satisfied (mild insult)
  • Placebo = An innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug

 

  1. Reg (King/ Rule):
  • Regal = Imperial/ majestic/ royal
  • Regent = Someone who rules during the absence or incapacity or minority of the country’s monarch
  • Regulate = Bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage

 

  1. Solus (alone):
  • Soliloquy = speech made to oneself
  • Solitude = The state or situation of being alone
  • Solitary = Being the only one; single and isolate
  • Solo = Any activity that is performed alone

 

  1. Semantikos (significant meaning):
  • Semantics = The study of language meaning
  • Semantic memory = Your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
  • Semantic error = An error in logic or arithmetic that must be detected at run time

 

  1. Somnus (sleep):
  • Somnolent = Sleepy
  • Insomnia = inability to fall asleep
  • Somnambulism = Sleep-walking
  • Somniferous = sleep-inducing/ soporific/ Somnific
  • Somniloquy = Uttering speech while asleep
  • Somnolescent = drowsy
  • Hypersomnia = An inability to stay awake

[“somnus” is the Roman god of Sleep, while “hypnos” is the Greek God of sleep!]

 

  1. Summus (total/ highest amount):
  • Summit = The top or extreme point of something
  • Sum = The final aggregate
  • Consummate = Perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities

 

  1. Soror (sister):
  • Sorority = A social club for female undergraduates
  • Sororal = Sister like
  • Sororicide = killing of one’s sister

 

  1. Scrib/ Scrip (write):
  • Scribe = Score a line on with a pointed instrument
  • Scribble = Write carelessly/ scrawl
  • Inscribe = enroll; engrave; encrypt; autograph
  • Proscribe = forbid or prohibit the use of any food or drug that might prove harmful to the patient
  • Prescribe = opposite to Proscribe
  • Scriptures = Any writing that is regarded as sacred by a religious group
  • Script = Something written by hand
  • Conscription = Compulsory military service
  • Circumscribe = Restrict or confine

 

  1. Theos (god):
  • Theism = Belief in the existence of God
  • Atheism = Belief that there is no God (not Agnosticism, Cynicism or Skepticism, these means “only Doubt”)
  • Monotheism = Belief in a single God
  • Polytheism = Belief in multiple Gods
  • Pantheism = worship that admits all Gods
  • Theocracy = government ruled by religious Leader
  • Theological = pertaining to the study of Religion
  • Apotheosis = Elevation of a person to the status of God

 

  1. Tele (afar):
  • Telepathy = feeling each other’s thoughts from afar
  • Telephone = sound from afar
  • Telegraph = writing from afar

 

 

  1. Taceo (to be silent):
  • Taciturn = Reticent/ Reserved/ secretive
  • Tacit = not verbalized/ unsaid/ unspoken

 

  1. Uxor (wife):
  • Uxor = (legal terminology) the Latin word for wife
  • Uxoricide = killing of one’s wife
  • Uxorious = excessively devoted to one’s wife

 

  1. Verbum (word):
  • Verbal = using words
  • Verbose = using too many words than necessary
  • Verbatim = In precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker
  • Verb = A content word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence
  • Verborrhea = an incessant, over-whelming cascade of words

 

  1. Ventri (stomach):
  • Ventriloquist = A performer who acts as he is speaking from his stomach, instead of his mouth
  • Ventral = Toward or on the belly; front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal [antonym = dorsal]

 

  1. Vita (Life):
  • Vital = Essential to Life; of crucial importance
  • Vitality = Life & strength
  • Vitamin = One of the many elements, on which life is dependent (A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, M, P)
  • Vitalize = to impart vigor or life to
  • Devitalize = to rob of vigor or life
  • Vitellus = yolk

[off-topic: in complimentary sense,Gourmet > Gourmand > Glutton]

 

  1. Vetus (old):
  • Veteran = Rendered competent through trial and experience; Seasoned
  • Inveterate = Habitual (derogatory implication)

 

  1. Volubile (to roll):
  • Volubility = Rolling out the words
  • Revolve = to roll around

 

  1. Vir (man):

 

  • Virago = Far from being traditionally Feminine; Termagant/ Harridan/ Battle-ax/ Shrew/ Harpy

 

  1. Verto (to turn):

 

  • Introvert = one who turns his mind inward
  • Extrovert = one who turns his mind outward
  • Ambivert = one who turns his mind both inward and outward

 

  1. Voc/ vox/ vok (voice or call):
  • Equivocal = mugwumps/ fencesitters (not ambiguous)
  • Equivocate = prevaricate/ tergiversate (purposely)
  • Magnavox = (radio) Large voice
  • Vox populi = public opinion
  • Vocation = calling
  • Avocation = hobby; something not one’s actual calling
  • Vociferous = in a loud voice
  • Revoke = call back; cancel
  • Convoke = call together

 

  1. Via (road):
  • Via = By way of/ thru
  • Obvious = Conspicuous/ apparent/ evident/ overt
  • Obviate = Prevent from happening

 

  1. Volo (to wish):
  • Malevolent = ill-disposed (wishing badly)
  • Benevolent = well-disposed (wishing well)
  • Voluntary = Of your own free will or design
  • Involuntary = Not subject to the control of the will
  • Volunteer = do, tell or agree freely
  • Volition = will

 

  1. Zoion (animal):
  • Zoology = The branch of biology that studies animals

 

 

 

 

 

 

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