One Stop GK Guide – Static GK – Politics
India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. The President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of the central government.
There have been 14 presidents of India since the introduction of the post in 1950. The current tenure is 5 years of an Indian President’s term.
An acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of an organization’s or country’s president when the substantive president is unavailable or when the post is vacant. Till date, three presidents have been appointed as acting presidents.
Here is a list of all the presidents and acting presidents against their tenure.
Image source – www.mapsofindia.com
Here are some important Amendments to the Constitution that you should note.
|7||1956||Reorganisation of states on linguistic basis and abolition of Class A, B, C and D states and introduction of Union Territories.|
|9||1960||Adjustments to Indian territory as a result of an agreement with Pakistan.|
|10||1961||Dadra, Nagar and Haveli included in the Indian Union as a Union Territory on the acquisition from Portugal.|
|12||1961||Goa, Daman and Diu included in the Indian Union as a Union Territory on the acquisition from Portugal.|
|13||1963||The state of Nagaland formed with special protection under Article 371A.|
|14||1962||Pondicherry incorporated into the Indian Union after transfer by France.|
|21||1967||Sindhi added as a language in the 8th schedule.|
|26||1971||Privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states abolished.|
|36||1975||Sikim included as an Indian state.|
|42||1976||Fundamental Duties prescribed, India became the Socialist Secular Republic.|
|44||1978||Right to Property deleted from the list of fundamental rights.|
|52||1985||Defection to another party after election made illegal.|
|61||1989||Voting age reduced from 21 to 18.|
|71||1992||Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali added as languages in the Eighth Schedule.|
|73||1993||Introduction of Panchayati Raj, an addition of Part IX to the Constitution.|
|74||1993||Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.|
|86||2002||Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years.|
|92||2003||Bodo, Dogri, Santhali and Maithli added to the list of recognised languages. Service Tax introduced.|
|8,23,45,62, 79 and 95||1960, 1970, 1980, 1989, 2000 and 2010||Extension of reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of Anglo-Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies.|
|96||2011||Substituted Odia for Oriya in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution|
|97||2012||Introduction of Part IXB in the Constitution pertaining to Co-operative Societies|
|101||2016||Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST)|
The 42nd amendment was the most comprehensive amendment which had 59 clauses and carried out so many changes that it has been described as a “Mini Constitution”.
The 52nd amendment was the only amendment to be unanimously adopted by the Parliament.
Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.
The first schedule contains the list of states and union territories and their territories.
The second schedule contains provisions as to the President, Governors of States, Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State, the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
The third Schedule contains the Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.
The fourth Schedule contains provisions as to the allocation of seats in the Council of States.
The fifth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
The sixth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
The seventh Schedule contains the Union list, State list and the concurrent list.
The eighth Schedule contains the list of recognised languages.
The ninth Schedule contains provisions as to validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
The tenth Schedule contains provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.
The eleventh Schedule contains the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
The twelfth Schedule contains the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities.
Here is a quick summary of the Articles of the Constitution:
|Article 12 –35||Specify the Fundamental Rights available|
|Article 36-51||Specify the Directive Principles of state policy|
|Article 51A||Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen|
|Article 80||Specifies the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha|
|Article 81||Specifies the number of seats in the Lok Sabha|
|Article 343||Hindi as official language|
|Article 356||Imposition of President’s Rule in states|
|Article 368||Amendment to the Constitution|
|Article 370||Special status to Kashmir|
|Article 395||Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935|